“Tools for an Unknown Future” – or how to realise a project with international partners

OLIVER BAURHENN

ABSTRACT: Realising a cultural project with a multitude of partners over a long period and with a good amount of money involved is not an easy task. Nevertheless it should be a pleasure to exchange, to think jointly, to deal with artists and to get in touch with cultural differences. Therefore here are some bullet points condensing the experience of a project called ECAS taken as an example of multilateral, global, cultural interaction.

 

© Oliver Baurhenn. ECAS project meeting in Berlin in 2013

© Oliver Baurhenn. ECAS project meeting in Berlin in 2013

In the beginning: Some remarks

Leaving your comfort zone is nice and often heard advice not only in your private life but also in your life as a cultural worker. I won’t talk about whether this is necessary or not as it might be quite nice at home – I know. Setting sail in an international project demands quite a lot of effort but you will be rewarded; therein lies the old wisdom that you won’t only get to know others or the Other, you will also get to know yourself better. You will encounter what is inherent to international projects; there will be joy if all goes well and you will be filled with relish. Then again…

The future is contingent. One never knows what is going to happen or when, how or what the outcome will be, especially in the process of organising an event that is funded by public (taxpayer) money. The sword of Damocles hangs like a pendulum, constantly swinging over your head. Are the expenses justified, did I get enough tenders, can I pay friends to do something – I know they are among the top in their field – but isn’t it corruption? You can rarely approach a funding body with these questions, as they have the same sword over their heads.

A publicly funded event, for instance a festival that has no institutional funding as do museums or opera houses, is always rooted somewhere. It is clear to everyone that you need roots so as not to lose your character, your point of view, your attitude towards your event’s core spirit. If you step away from your ethical and moral backbone you will be easily interchangeable.

Within Europe there are many funding schemes in diverse countries. These sources allow you to realise your ideas, such as a festival. Nevertheless, most funding schemes are national. Some funding might come from your city council or your borough. Of course you wish to organise something unique, especially as yours is a festival that reaches out beyond the realm of the local/national funding territory. But, where does your festival’s territory end, and where does it begin?

I am sure that you’d love to invite the whole world to explore and share in your ideas and your perspective, something that is only magnified the more you strive to generate dialogue and ideas that address the future. You of course now find yourself on the edge of your funding scheme’s territory, a treacherous position as you shouldn’t forget that you’re using your region’s taxpayer money. Often the funding stops at your national borders – but of what use are these borders if you are acting globally?

An example: ECAS. European Money for 5 years, Constant struggle, Amazing people, sometimes bumpy pleasures

The project ECAS – Networking Tomorrow’s Art for an Unknown Future started as an idea shared between 9 partners from 8 different European countries.1 We wanted to submit a multiannual application for a 5 year European Union funded project that would receive up to 50% funding for a maximum of 2 million Euro. And we did submit it. It took three attempts but then in January 2010 our efforts were rewarded. Our applicant group decided to put a strong emphasis on co-operative working structures, thus the core of the application was written together by all partners and mirrored a shared range of pressing ideas at that time (2009). The aim was to realise the project on a transnational European level, actively ignoring national boundaries within Europe. Each partner had the same voice and the same responsibilities. This idealistic approach meant that constant exchange, openness and training in communication skills were persistently demanded of each partner. The quality of artistic presentation was as important as the exchange of ideas, tasks and responsibilities between the partners (the process).

Unfortunately we don’t live in an ideal world: the effects of the financial crisis post-2008 affected many of the organisations within the ECAS group: cultural funding cuts of 30% in the UK; nearly the same cuts in the Netherlands; huge changes, restructuring and of course financial cuts within the Austrian national broadcasting service; political insecurities affecting the level of city funding in Kraków, Poland; the devastating effects of the last financial crisis on a small country like Latvia; the political standstill in Belgium… Only in Norway and Germany did the struggle remain a fairly “regular” one, although with Norway’s transition to a more nationalist government and Germany’s specific cultural funding system, difficulties were also encountered when searching for ways to generate the necessary funds to match the European Union grant money.

It was also definitely not helpful to see a return to old-fashioned notions of nation-states in Europe. As we all wish not to be affected within the cultural sector, these poisonous ideas sometimes diffuse slowly in people’s minds – also in the minds of your project partners. We had to fight against increasingly national cultural agendas, which also created quite a challenge within the network as all partners tried to balance new demands from their respective countries while at the same time exploring new ways to cooperate on a European level. Often we searched for the strengths in the situation of each country, which sometimes meant that our project members with easier access to funding took on more responsibilities for some parts of the project than others. As much as we tried to make the best use of the different structures within Europe to the advantage of the project, it is a new and challenging way of doing things. The problems we encountered were not on a curatorial level nor on the level of artistic output. Rather the challenge was working on a pioneering supranational level that still hinges on outdated (national) structures that we, as a project, can’t easily abolish but are only able to find time consuming work-arounds for. Naturally this challenge sometimes created tensions within our working group.

ECAS started as a loose assembly of likeminded festivals with the aim to reflect on their public and societies, examine links to other fields of art beyond the core of sound, and investigate the festival format as a processual format (Laboratory) that changes the more we gain insight into what a festival was, is and can be.

The ECAS project had an impact on several levels:

1. Evaluation, re-thinking and transformation of organisation and festival formats

2. Development of low-threshold access to our initiatives and events for a diverse public without losing strong standards of curation and quality

3. Introduction of new diverse publics to the niche of contemporary sound cultures and broadening the knowledge of this realm to diverse milieus all over Europe

4. Production of challenging new artistic productions and strengthening artistic mobility via tools for organisational and artistic cooperation

5. Fostering a deep exchange of knowledge within Europe and beyond, which itself was stimulated because of the project’s challenging, non-hierarchical mindset (collective curatorial discussions and decision-making processes)

6. Creation of best practices for European and international co-operation based on mutual understanding and respect

Lastly, and perhaps most telling of the project’s successes in the long-term, is the creation of an international network of festivals and organisations, called ICAS. Sparked by the ECAS project, the International Cities of Advanced Sound network has become a global agent of change, creation, mobilisation and connection within the realm of sound, music and related art forms.

The essential value of such a network is not measurable in economic terms. The value rather lies in the “environment” such initiatives create; spaces in which innovative projects can be developed. Moreover, the network became a system that embodies some of the ideals of a European culture. It created a dynamic and inclusive structure of cooperation, where members are equally valued regardless of their status, where communication is horizontal, and where cultural differences are appreciated as an asset and not as a threat.

The final question within the ECAS project was: What are the tools for an Unknown Future? Interestingly, while writing the application in 2008/09 we were thinking of digital or online tools without realising that these are only numeric facilitators of communication, knowledge sharing and exchange. What online tools don’t do or foster is reflection on social relations, individual approaches, or contexts and methods of creating intriguing environments of learning, experience and advancement. We thus realised that there are other, more socially-oriented, skills needed to deal with the Unknown and to create a collaborative environment as a mixed European group that was stretching out geographically from three hundred kilometres above the polar circle (Tromsø), southward over the alps (Graz), and stretching eastward from Manchester and The Hague via Berlin, Dresden and Krakow, up to Riga.2 Additionally, we involved partners for special actions from non-EU regions as Kyiv (Ukraine), Montevideo (Uruguay), Montreal (Canada), and Boulder (USA) and included them in our joint environment.

© Oliver Baurhenn. ICAS meeting in Montreal in 2016.

© Oliver Baurhenn. ICAS meeting in Montreal in 2016.

A toolbox: 10 things you should keep in mind

Following the experience of working closely together in a group made up of nine diverse partners over five years, and in the ICAS Network with around 30 further partners from all over the world, I’ve attempted to summarize this endeavour into some bullet points that might be seen as a little toolbox and guide for a successful global project:

  1. It is always good to know one’s enemy. Partners can become enemies if you don’t make an effort to get to know them a bit better beforehand. It is definitely advised to strive for an equal and balanced partnership. If you know what you can expect from each other, then you can start developing a shared vision of what you want to do together.
  2. Now that you know your partner(s) you can start to develop a shared vision. Take care with your communication tools and always remember that it is better to meet in person than only via telecommunication tools. The latter are of great use in the implementation process but if you want to sketch-out bigger ideas and plans, then meet face to face.
  3. If you are working with different organisations then make sure the representative you are working with has the full support of his or her colleagues or higher ranks to negotiate on their behalf. Nothing is more annoying than to develop ideas and agree on things, only to have them spoiled by non-present persons.
  4. Be patient! Especially when you work with partners from different backgrounds. Try to find common ground, and don’t forget to ask questions if your gut tells you that something is wrong. Get to know your differences! It greatly helps the whole project if you can “surf” on different cultural policies or funding schemes that can be accessed by your different partners. If you get annoyed then use humour to get rid of your frustration. Your partners will be more open to mirror your clichés if you use humour, and everyone will feel less offended and be open to better understanding one another.3
  5. Pidgin English: Do you understand me? In international collaborations it is quite rare that partners learned English as a first language. Besides being patient in order to understand what other non-English speakers are telling you, also listen carefully and don’t hesitate to ask again if you don’t grasp the idea. What the hell is s/he talking about? Take a deep breath and don’t be too shy to ask them to repeat their idea.
  6. Now that you’ve gained a mutual understanding and commitment from all sides, don’t forget to involve colleagues from your partner organisations here and there! Create an environment that makes them feel welcome to join and add to the multifaceted voices. Ensuring organisational commitment should not only be considered as work, it is an ongoing work in progress that needs to be nurtured throughout the duration of the partnership.
  7. Don’t be afraid to formalise things! You are very good friends now but culturally friendships have different definitions. Some respect friendship as something that should not be burdened, other cultures ask for the opposite. Then another is asking you for endless trust and forgiveness – nobody is without fault. I would say that this wonderful challenge will bring you many rewarding moments. Nevertheless, it is always good to lay out a pathway if there is conflict. Agree on guidelines! Formalise the relationship, put the tasks and responsibilities of administration down in written form and integrate what you decided into your organisation’s policy.
  8. Discover what synergies between partners can be created. Use the different strengths to deliver more than what was promised. Realising a joint project should be fun and a learning process. There is always potential for conflict, but use that energy to find interesting solutions and don’t insist on your ideas if they are not viable. Keep in mind Benjamin Franklin’s wisdom: If everyone is thinking alike, then no one is thinking. Speak about your experiences with your partners and share results and knowledge. Moreover, don’t forget to continuously monitor the partnership using both quantitative and qualitative indicators. Facts help to support your proposals.
  9. Envision your partnership’s sustainability. Aside from continuous evaluations and adaptations to your working process, imagine that your partnership could go on beyond the project’s lifetime. Go over all the things that went well or have been well done and of course also check what went wrong and ask why. This seems easy, but oftentimes partners are too exhausted from their joint project and forget to evaluate the good, the bad and the ugly. Concerning new project ideas, it is always easier to work with a core of good old partners to which a few newcomers are added, than to start completely anew. The journey is the goal and you want to do it with people you know.
  10. Money makes the world go round – or not! Financial capacity and sustainability can be seen as both a concern and prerequisite for sustaining the partnership. However, while this is important and should be considered, motivation and interest are crucial and these do not always cost money. Partnerships require time and effort. Healthy partnerships operate on a basis of equality and mutual recognition. The parties should be both compatible (equal enough) and complementary (different enough). Throughout the partnership, all involved must be willing to work and make it last. It is all about co-operation and not competition.

The future is contingent – but this does not mean it can’t be fun!

 

 

ENDNOTES

1 The ECAS project: European Cities of Advanced Sound – Networking Tomorrow’s Art for an Unknown Future was proposed by 9 European Organisations (DISK-Initiative Bild & Ton e.V./ CTM Festival, Berlin; Trans-Media-Akademie Hellerau e.V./ CynetArt Festival, Dresden; ORF musikprotokoll im steirischen herbst, Graz; Fundacja Tone – Muzyka i Nowe Formy Sztuki / Unsound Festival, Krakow; The Generator Foundation/ TodaysArt Festival, The Hague; Cimatics cic, Brussels; FutureEverything, Manchester; Stiftelsen Insomnia, Tromsø; Biedrība Skanu Mezs, Riga) to the European Union funding scheme Cultur. The project started on June 1, 2010 and ended after 60 months on May 31, 2015. It had a provisioned budget of 3.6 mi Euro of which 50% were European Union subsidies and 50% were funds raised by all organizations. See more: www.icasnetwork.org and www.ecasnetwork.org
2 European Union provides a culture grant scheme for all 28 member states and all associates from the European Economic Area and additionally most of the applicant states (e.g. Albania, Serbia, etc.). 30% of activities and of the budget can be spent outside of EU on activities in non-European Union or associate states.
3 I wanted to say that we are each attributed clichés = Germans are always on time or the like; and there are attributes that are clichés but actually exist, so sometimes being German means that you are acting like a German for the people that you are talking to. So, they will probably mirror this. Often you only see it in their eyes and they don’t let you know, so you have to create an atmosphere where these clichés can be mirrored and you can make jokes about these or the clichés of the others.

 

 

A study on sustainability and festival networks

PAULINA MÁRQUEZ

ABSTRACT: A study on sustainability and festival networks: Are festival networks a strategic asset for small-scale, non-profit, arts festivals to achieve a more resilient sustainability? A study based on the ICAS (International Cities of Advanced Sound) network and its foundational project ECAS (European Cities of Advanced Sound).

 

© ICASnetwork / Katharina Meissner

© ICASnetwork / Katharina Meissner

 

Festival networks have been the structure under which non-profit arts festivals, among others, join forces through international collaboration and cooperation in face of a fast paced and vulnerable industry. These networks bring different benefits to their members and can consequently help them enhance their capacities as well as increase their competitiveness, but are they a strategic asset for small-scale, non-profit, arts festivals to achieve a more resilient sustainability?

To determine whether festival networks enable members to develop their sustainability, it is necessary to analyse the benefits offered to members in relation to the elements that support the sustainability of these types of festivals. In order to focus this analysis, a festival network and its foundational project were taken as case studies: ICAS (International Cities of Advanced Sound) and ECAS (European Cities of Advanced Sound).1

Analysing the ways in which festivals can strengthen sustainability is crucial. As Foccroulle (2009: 16) points out in his article “At the heart of European identities,” ‘The amazing diversity of festivals reflects Europe and its culture’. In a time when funds for culture are scarce, when resources are harder to grasp, it is fundamental to think creatively, in order to attain sustainability (Arts Council Chicago, 2013: 1).

About the sustainability of small scale, non-profit, arts festivals

Sustainability can be defined as the ‘ability or capacity of something to be maintained or to sustain itself’ (LandLearn, 2015). Historically, non-profit arts festivals have struggled to achieve sustainability. This is because they ‘are driven by a mission and not by profits making, they are quite dependent on public funding, they have difficulties to generate surplus from their core activities and they are undercapitalized’ (Rodríguez, 2015: 11).

The core teams of these festivals are charged with obtaining all the necessary resources to develop the festival. How is it possible to access these resources? In the case of non-profit organisations, ‘many organisers are dependent on contributions from donors or on exchanges with sponsors. In other words, they have to mobilise resources through other actors’ (Getz, 2005 cited in Elbe, 2009: 232). Non-profit festival organisations access resources through the relationships they establish.

Managing to finance a festival exclusively from its own revenues, meaning tickets, merchandise and, if possible, bar sales, is hard to imagine. Generally, festivals are expensive to produce, their sources of revenue are limited, and the time span in which they are active is quite short. In most cases, festivals cover two-thirds of their global budget with public and private funding.

Despite the negative connotations that public funding and sponsorships may have, there is no doubt both are valuable resources. The problem is that most non-profit festival organisations rely too much on these sources of income. Festivals must lower their dependence on these sources of funding and rethink their business models because at the moment, ‘everything points out to the standard arts festival model becoming harder to sustain in an increasingly competitive market’ (Palmer and Thelwall, 2013: 3-4).

There is no precise formula for non-profit arts festivals to become more stable and sustainable, not only because each festival is organised and managed differently, but also because festivals are affected by their context and the place in which they develop, making each case unique. Nevertheless, there are some assets that are indispensable to strengthen sustainability: innovating (Carlsen, et al, 2010: 121), achieving strategic partnerships (Klaic, 2009a: 103-111), collaborating (Rodríguez, 2015: 9), being flexible enough to cope with change (Getz, 2002 cited in Carlsen, et al, 2010: 123 – 124), having demanding programmes and expanding audiences (Krijanskaia cited in Pejovic, 2009: 193).

How participating in a festival network can support a festival’s sustainability

To understand how being part of a network can help festivals to enhance their sustainability, this section correlates the benefits of network participation (based on the information collected from the ICAS and ECAS research) with the assets that can strengthen sustainability.

Strategic partnerships

  • The gathering of like-minded organisations working within the same field and sharing similar interests under the umbrella of a network lends strength to the group that can facilitate lobbying in order to support this specific sector of society.
  • As Elbe (2009: 232) points out, legitimacy is an indispensable asset for the development of any kind of festival. For young festivals, this is a particularly delicate issue, as they have not yet gained recognition by their own means. Joining a festival network such as ICAS brings legitimacy to its members. It is the legitimacy of the network and its most established festival members that expands and consequently ‘legitimates’ the activities of the younger members.
  • Through the gathering of international festival organisations, festival networks enable the mobility of artists and artistic programmes at an international level. The different festival members create a circuit that facilitates the touring of different artists and projects. This expansion in mobility naturally increases the visibility of such projects, at both local and international levels.
  • Festival networks can also enable the mobility of cultural workers, generally in the form of cultural residency programs. According to Oliver Baurhenn, co-director of CTM, this is the best way in which cultural workers can learn from other organisations and share their knowledge in return, because residencies give enough time for people to get to know each other and to assimilate and apply that knowledge.
  • As Klaic (2009a: 104) points out, the more international a festival is in its programme, the more aware it must be of its local context. Local support is essential for the successful development of festivals. Most of the interviewees confirm that being part of the network has increased their local profile. For both partners and local funders, an international network represents the possibility to promote and give visibility to local talent abroad.
  • Most of the interviewees confirmed that being part of the network facilitated access to new funds: locally, regionally or internationally. The reasons for this vary depending on the festival and its context. In some cases, the network legitimated an organisation in the eyes of potential funders, in other cases promoting local talent abroad aroused the interest of public institutions, and in others the international character of the network helped to access funds abroad.
  • Festival networks support and promote the development of new collaborative projects and exchanges between organisations at different levels. At this level, the network works as a space of encounter, where cultural workers can meet with others and identify potential partners for their projects.

Collaboration

  • Constant exchange with people from other countries allows the network members to better understand and appreciate different contexts and realities, and increases the international and intercultural competencies of cultural workers.
  • Some of the network members are organisations that have more than fifteen years of experience, whilst others are young festivals run by young entrepreneurs. Sharing knowledge across generations, nations, and organisations of different sizes, is an asset that is not always easy to grasp outside of this type of structure.
  • Joining a network of like-minded people working to achieve similar goals and facing similar challenges gives the members a sense of community and solidarity within their field. This sense of community gives internal strength to the network and its members.

Innovation

  • Exchange with like-minded professionals from different backgrounds is the perfect incubator for new ideas and exchange of information, and organisational knowledge facilitates the development of various projects.
  • Getting to know different points of view allows festival organisers to question themselves.
  • The connections between people in the network generate a stimulating collective intelligence, which is enhanced when members physically meet.
  • In a fast-paced industry, the network represents a space where members can stop and think about where the network and its members are heading, what they are doing and why.
  • Trust among individual members of the network allows people to be open about their thoughts and to give critical and honest feedback to others, provoking reflection on the work developed by different organisations and cultural workers.

Demanding programmes, expanding audiences

  • The intercultural diversity of the network can have an important effect on the uniqueness of the programme and the international profile of the audience. It increases the international profile of its members, especially the less established or younger ones, and promotes the discovery of international artistic talent.
  • Festival members involved in co-productions with other network members emphasized the network facilitated and enriched the process of creating new artistic work. Exchange within the network gave them access to expertise, a wider artistic choice, a wider touring network, and access to different types of support.
  • Joining an international network can also raise a festival’s profile with its local audience. As Tim Terpstra, former curator of TodaysArt, affirms, working with a variety of festivals from different countries allows for unique programming. For a curious and bold audience, having access to a unique programme is of great value.

Flexibility to cope with change

  • Through networks, festival organisers are able to gain organisational knowledge by learning how other festivals operate and by sharing strategic information, which allows them to rethink the way their own organisation operates and to find diverse alternatives when faced with different challenges.
  • Having the capacity to find different solutions to potential problems by learning through the experience of others also enhances the flexibility of these organisations, an indispensable asset for facing the changing nature of the festival industry.
  • By being exposed to different realities and ways of doing things, it is possible to recognise things that could be lacking or failing in one’s home country. This intercultural exchange makes it possible for cultural workers to recognize and evaluate models that could potentially be imported and applied in their home countries.

Conclusion

Although the present study has its limitations and is not representative of non-profit arts festivals or of festival networks overall, it is a small sample aiming to measure the different benefits that festival networks bring to their members. It also demonstrates the importance of further research in this area.

Festival networks are platforms that can allow festivals to achieve a more resilient sustainability. Nevertheless, these networks can only offer tools to make this happen. Sustainability is a hard thing to accomplish, and relies heavily on the creativity and the ability of festival organisers, with shared effort and open collaboration between sectors. As Rodríguez (2015: 9) affirms, ‘the new contemporary paradigm requires all type of organisations –public, non-profit and for-profit–to cooperate and work across sectors and working fields in order to have a more holistic approach to reality and more efficiently tackle the pressing problems that our societies are currently facing at all levels’.

It is important to acknowledge that the benefits a network can offer will also depend on the specificities and operation of each network. ICAS is a medium-sized network that facilitates communication and encounter, which is not always the case. There are, for example, larger, extensive networks where communication and organization are not always easy to establish and maintain.

Nevertheless, festival networks can be agents of change, of creation, of mobilisation and connection. Their essential value is not measurable in economic terms, since it lies in the ‘environment’ they create, in which innovative projects can be developed. They are dynamic and inclusive structures of cooperation where communication is horizontal, and where differences between cultures are appreciated as an asset and not as a threat.

We are living in a time when nationalism is expanding. In times such as these, where exclusion is becoming the norm, inclusive structures like festival networks where creation is collective, knowledge is shared, and diversity is cherished, are not only beneficial for cultural workers or the organisations of a specific industry, but for society itself. As Foccroulle (2009: 16) points out in his article “At the heart of European identities,” ‘The amazing diversity of festivals reflects Europe and its culture. Yet are we aware enough of that wealth? Will we be able to help it to grow and take advantage of all of its promises? Will we be able to gather into dynamic networks and leverage all its resources?’’ Festival networks are great structures to collectively rethink and reinvent not only the festival model, or to shape the future of an industry, they are also a strategic place to rethink the way in which we want to influence the world we live in.

 

ENDNOTES

1  ICAS is an international network dedicated to advancing sound cultures, music and related arts. ECAS was the project that initially triggered the creation of ICAS and later on became a project of nine partners of the network. Both developed from a natural collaboration among independent festivals and dedicated persons that shared an interest in promoting and creating projects related to experimental music, sound and new technologies with a trans-disciplinary approach. ICAS has been working as an informal network for over nine years and is formed of thirty-one active members across Europe, America and Australia. ECAS was a five-year initiative co-founded by the Creative Europe programme that ended in 2015. It was formed by nine partners of the ICAS network.
In order to analyse the benefits that the festival members have achieved through participation in these networks, a qualitative study based on interviews with nine of the festival members was developed. This research is based on the study developed by IETM – Informal European Theatre Meeting (2001) in relation to the importance of artistic and cultural networks, How Networking Works.

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Arts & Business Council of Chicago (2013) Alternative Sources for Revenue Generation. Available at: http://www.artsbiz-chicago.org/events/2013/08/alternative-models-for-revenue-generation/ (Accessed: 21 June 2014).
Arts Professional (2013) Exploring the festival model. Available at: http://www.artsprofessional.co.uk/magazine/262/feature/exploring-festival-model (Accessed: 16 June 2014).
Autissier, A. (2009a) ‘A short history of Festivals in Europe from the 18th century until today’, in Autissier, A. (ed.) The Europe of Festivals: From Zagreb to Edinburgh, intersecting viewpoints. Toulouse: editions de l’attribut.
Autissier, A. (2009b) ‘Cultural policies and Festivals, convergences or misunderstandings?’, in Autissier, A. (ed.) The Europe of Festivals: From Zagreb to Edinburgh, intersecting viewpoints. Toulouse: editions de l’attribut.
Autissier, A. (2009c) ‘Festivals associations, points of reference or platforms for cultural globalisation?’, in Autissier, A. (ed.) The Europe of Festivals: From Zagreb to Edinburgh, intersecting viewpoints. Toulouse: editions de l’attribut.
Bacchella, U., Cherchi, L., Curti, I., Dal Pozzolo, L., Gordon, C. and Rusconi, M. (2003) Cultural Cooperation in Europe: what role for Foundations?. Available at: http://www.fitzcarraldo.it/ricerca/pdf/Volume.pdf (Accessed: 25 July 2015).
Baurhenn, O. (2015) Interview. (Applied: 20 August 2015).
Bogen, P. and Sayrin, A. (2015) An introduction to arts and culture networks in Europe. Available at: http://teh.net/resource/an-introduction-to-arts-and-culture-networks-in-europe/ (Accessed: 21 July 2015).
Borgatti, S. (1996) Virtual/Network Organizations. Available at: http://www.analytictech.com/mb021/virtual.htm (Accessed: 22 July 2015).
British Arts Festival Association (2008) Festivals Mean Buisness 3: A Survey of Arts Festivals in the UK. Available at: http://www.efa-aef.eu/newpublic/upload/efadoc/11/Festival_UK_Survey.pdf (Accessed: 19 May 2014).
Carlsen, J., Andersson, T., Ali-Knight, J., Jaeger, K. and Taylor, R. (2010) ‘Festival management innovation and failure’, International Journal of Event and Festival Management. 1 (2): pp.120-131.
Caust, J. and Glow, H. 2011. ‘Festivals, artists and entrepreneurialism: The role of the Adelaide Fringe Festival’. International Journal of Event and Festival Management, 6 (2), pp.1-14.
Celuch, K. and Davidson, R. (2009) ‘Human Resources in the Business Events Industry’, in Ali-Knight, J., Robertson, M., Fyall, A. and Ladkin, A. (eds.) International Perspectives of Festivals and Events: Paradigms of Analysis. USA: Elsevier.
CMKY (2015) ICAS The bigger picture. Available at: http://cmky.org/cmky/icas/ (Accessed: 17 August 2015).
Cools, G. (2004) International co-production and touring. Available at: http://portal.unesco.org/culture/fr/files/34854/11885730593Co-productionandtouringEurope2004.pdf/Co-productionandtouringEurope2004.pdf
Creative Europe Desk UK (2015) European Networks. Available at: http://www.creativeeuropeuk.eu/european-networks (Accessed: 24 July 2015).
Cvjetičanin, B. (ed.) (2011) Networks: The Evolving Aspects of Culture in the 21st Century. Zagreb, Croatia: AKD, Agencija za komercijalnu djelatnost.
De Klerk, S. and Saayman, M. (2012) ‘Networking as key factor in Artpreneurial success’, European Business Review, 24 (5), pp. 382-399 Emerald [Online]. Available at: http://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/abs/10.1108/09555341211254490 (Accessed: 21 July 2015).
Dickson, G. and Milne, S. (2009) ‘Measuring the Impact of Micro-Events on Local Communities: A Role for Web-Based Approaches’, in Ali-Knight, J., Robertson, M., Fyall, A. and Ladkin, A. (eds.) International Perspectives of Festivals and Events: Paradigms of Analysis. USA: Elsevier.
ECAS European Cities of Advanced Sound (2015) Member Organisations. Available at: http://ecasnetwork.org/members/ (Accessed: 24 July 2015).
Elbe, J. (2009) ‘A Model for Analysing the Development of Public Events’, in Ali-Knight, J., Robertson, M., Fyall, A. and Ladkin, A. (eds.) International Perspectives of Festivals and Events: Paradigms of Analysis. USA: Elsevier.
Ellis, A. (2003) Valuing Culture. Available at: http://www.demos.co.uk/files/File/VACUAEllis.pdf (Accessed: 05 June 2014).
European Commission – Creative Europe (2015) European Networks. Available at: http://ec.europa.eu/programmes/creative-europe/opportunities/culture-support/eu-networks_en.htm (Accessed: 26 July 2015).
Foccroulle, B. (2009) ‘At the heart of European identities’, in Autissier, A. (ed.) The Europe of Festivals: From Zagreb to Edinburgh, intersecting viewpoints. Toulouse: editions de l’attribut.
Getz, D. (2010). ‘The nature and scope of festival studies’, International Journal of Event Management Research, 5 (1), pp. 1-47.
Hewison, R. (2003) Valuing Culture. Available at: http://www.demos.co.uk/files/File/VACURHewison.pdf (Accessed: 05 June 2014).
Huchet, C. (2014) Interview. (Applied: 22 August 2014).
ICAS International Cities of Advanced Sound (2015) Members. Available at: http://icasnetwork.org/ (Accessed: 24 July 2015).
ICCO (2004) Networking for learning: what can participants do?. Available at: http://www.mande.co.uk/docs/networkingforlearning.pdf (Accessed: 25 July 2015).
IETM (2001) How Networking Works: IETM Study on the Effects of Networking. Available at: https://www.ietm.org/sites/default/files/how_networking_works.pdf (Accessed: 21 July 2015).
IFACCA International Federation of Arts Councils and Culture Agencies (2015) International cultural exchange and networking. Available at: http://www.ifacca.org/topic/networks-transnational-arts-projects/ (Accessed: 25 July 2015).
Klaic, D. (2009a) ‘Festivals’ core business: The Art of Partnership’, in Autissier, A. (ed.) The Europe of Festivals: From Zagreb to Edinburgh, intersecting viewpoints. Toulouse: editions de l’attribut.
Klaic, D. (2009b) ‘From Festivals to event planning’, in Autissier, A. (ed.) The Europe of Festivals: From Zagreb to Edinburgh, intersecting viewpoints. Toulouse: editions de l’attribut.
LandLearn (2015) What is sustainability?. Available at http://www.landlearnnsw.org.au/sustainability/what-is-sustainability (Accessed: 16 August 2015).
Liburd, J. (2009) ‘Tourism and the Hans Christian Andersen Bicentenary Event in Denmark’, in Ali-Knight, J., Robertson, M., Fyall, A. and Ladkin, A. (eds.) International Perspectives of Festivals and Events: Paradigms of Analysis. USA: Elsevier.
Lidström, B. (2002) Arts and Business: Attitudes towards Arts Sponsorship. Available ar: http://neumann.hec.ca/iccpr/PDF_Texts/Lidstrom_Bengt.pdf (Accessed: 22 September 2014).
Mission Models Money (2010) Expanding the financial toolbox. Working together to build financial resilience (1). Available at: http://www.missionmodelsmoney.org.uk/sites/default/files/28029099-Case-Story-Part-1-How-a-group-of-organisations-can-grow-income-streams-MMM-2010_3.pdf (Accessed: 23 June 2014).
Mission Models Money (2010) Expanding the financial toolbox. Working together to build financial resilience (2). Available at: http://www.missionmodelsmoney.org.uk/sites/default/files/28029089-Case-Story-Part-2-A-group-strategy-for-new-forms-of-finance-MMM-2010_3.pdf (Accessed: 23 June 2014).
Moeran, B. and Strandgaard, J. (2011) ‘Introduction’, in Moeran, B. and Strandgaard, J. (eds.) Negotiating values in the creative industries: Fairs, Festivals and Competitive Events. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Mowlah, A., Niblett, V., Blackburn, J. and Harris, M. (2014) The value of arts and culture to people and society: an evidence review. (2nd edn.) Manchester, England: Arts Council England.
Palmer, H. and Thelwall, S. (2013) Smaller arts festivals: what is the most sustainable business model. Available at: http://www.theguardian.com/culture-professionals-network/culture-professionals-blog/2013/feb/13/arts-festivals-funding-local-authorities (Accessed: 04 August 2014).
Pejovic, K. (2009) ‘Festivals and long life: what is the equation?’, in Autissier, A. (ed.) The Europe of Festivals: From Zagreb to Edinburgh, intersecting viewpoints. Toulouse: editions de l’attribut.
Picard, D. and Robinson, M. (2006) ‘Remaking Worlds: Festivals, Tourism and Change’, in Picard, D. and Robinson, M. (eds.) Festivals, Tourism and Social Change: Remaking Worlds. England: Channel View Publications.
Poláček, R. (2007) Study on Impediments to Mobility en the EU Live Performance Sector and on Possible Solutions. Helsinki: Finnish Theatre Information Centre, Mobile.Home Project.
Prentice, R. and Andersen, V. (2003) ‘Festival as creative destination’, Annals of Tourism Research, 30 (1), pp. 7-30.
Rodríguez, J. (2015) Business Model Innovation for Cultural Organizations. Available at: https://www.ietm.org/sites/default/files/business_model_innovation_.pdf (Accessed: 21 July 2015).
Smith, M. and Forest, K. (2006) ‘Enhancing Vitality or Compromising Integrity? Festivals, Tourism and the Complexities of Performing Culture’, in Picard, D. and Robinson, M. (eds.) Festivals, Tourism and Social Change: Remaking Worlds. England: Channel View Publications.
Terpstra, T. (2015) Interview. (Applied: 11 August 2015).
Trans Europe Halles (2014) The importance of independent culture. Available at: http://teh.net/resource/video-importance-of-independent-culture/ (Accessed: 21 July 2015).
Trans Europe Halles (2010) Nordic Perspectives on European Networking: 13 independent cultural centres in conversation. Available at: http://teh.net.preview.binero.se/wp-content/uploads/2014/11/Nordic-Perspectives-on-European-Networking.pdf (Accessed: 21 July 2015).
Vandesompele, B. (2014) Interview. (Applied: 19 June 2014).

 

Self-Powered Communities: An Overview of Theories of Social Sustainability

HAJNAL SZOLGA

ABSTRACT: Sustainability may be examined from an economic, political, environmental, or cultural concerns viewpoint, but can it be also be viewed through a social lens? I would like to link the concept of sustainability to the constructive skills of humans by looking at the case of community-based cultural events and festivals.Sustainability is a term used not only in the natural and social sciences, but in architecture, design, and the arts as well. Mostly, we encounter the use of environmental sustainability in the context of current and urgent questions of climate change and global warming. Sustainable development is also a popular expression in urban planning, as well as in sociological and ecological research. Sustainability may be examined from an economic, political, environmental, or cultural viewpoint, but can it be also viewed through a social lens? I would like to link the concept of sustainability to the constructive skills of humans by looking at the case of community-based cultural events and festivals. If the meaning of sustainable is “to sustain itself,” we have to find an answer to what is the festival itself, or what makes a festival sustainable? There are many factors that affect an event’s success and long-term capacity, such as economic stability, specialized knowledge and technology, or the professional network. However, in this article I will focus on grassroots-, community cohesion- and social mission-based approaches of the human construction process. As a framework, I will use among others the idea of “Sustainability Revolution” which is at the basis of the theory of “The Three Es” (ecology / environment, economy/employment, equity/equality).1 By reviewing the ideas of several thinkers we can understand: What drives us? What is the aim of our activities? To change, expand, learn, or share? How can we ensure the sustainability of our events, preventing them from becoming the victims of profit-orientation, poor quality, or “mainstream” movement?

Photo: Ildikó Répáczky

Photo: Ildikó Répáczky

The need for community cohesion

The largest community organizing force lies in religion or ideology and philosophical systems. Its secret is a worldview of unity, one that creates a sense of belonging and togetherness in community members. Anthropologists such as Csányi or Sperber would use the term “beliefs” for this. The latter distinguishes between intuitive and reflective beliefs. Intuitive beliefs are those that stem from experience and innate predisposition, those that change less from culture to culture.We could say that these beliefs are biologically determined. However, there are also reflective beliefs, that are responsible for cultural diversity. Reflective beliefs are very different from culture to culture, for example, in interpretation of art. The famous Hungarian biologist, biochemist, and ethologist Vilmos Csányi writes that the ideal community is grounded in common belief (ideology, tradition), common action (doing the act together), and equal participation (the influence of the individual in communal decisions). From these three elements originates the practice of fealty (loyalty of the individual to the community). Csányi refers to this as social construction.2 Through this system of organizational skills, we reconstruct thoughts and language, but also objects or abstract models, structures, and rituals. The ritual expression of community belief can be a festival itself. However, this is not sufficient, namely because instead of relying on the hierarchy in the group, the maintenance of community planning and mutual responsibility, based on democratic relations, requires regular and transparent communication.

The origins of human actions

Sociobiologists and genetic reductionists posit that all of our actions are determined by self-interest and selfishness of genes.3 Marshall Shalins writes that the nature of man is a restless desire for power, and society is a set of relationships formed by the pursuit of private interests. “Organization is the socialized realization of desire,” he wrote.4 The thesis of Bourdieu states that in modern society, communities are organized into “fields” or “gaming spaces” through common interests and goals. Such a field can be a sector of the arts, or the political sphere. Some fields are more sustainable, having more available resources. What are these resources? Bourdieu uses the term “capital” for these: economic and financial capital affects one’s cultural capital, which symbolizes one’s knowledge and abilities, but also social class. This can be transmitted from generation to generation. Cultural capital defines one’s human (or symbolic) capital, which corresponds to their studies, job, prestige and social status based on respect and honour. Finally, the fourth source is one’s social capital, which is our social network, the affiliation to the communities, and to fields. He calls this “socialization.” Similar to Csányi’s social construction theory, this introduces the concept of social and cultural reproduction, which is knowledge, information, and transmission of existing cultural values and norms from generation to generation. Cultural reproduction refers to the mechanisms by which continuity of cultural experience is sustained across time.5

Cultural reproduction

So to our “What drives us?” question, the theories of Csányi, Bourdieu, and Sahlins suggest reconstruction and reproduction as answers. Humans feel the biological urge to transmit knowledge as genetic material, either referencing a tradition in the past, or visualizing a future innovation.The examined festival “itself” is a representational process, in which the subject is culture, and thus the sharing of knowledge and vision, which seeks to maintain the beliefs of the community. Sperber gives a bizarre but striking epidemiological analogy to this, which fits well with the ever-recurring themes of genes and memes.

“The representations can be cultural in various ways, there are among those that spread slowly between the generations, we call these traditions and these are similar to endamias. Other representations, which are characteristics of modern culture, in the whole population spread very quickly, but they have very short life, we call them trends, and these are similar to epidemics.”6

Visions for sustainable communities

Now that we have explored the object of our inner urge as a concept, we shall examine the form in which it can be used long term. All of the above-mentioned social models trace out hierarchical structures and dystopian visions. However, history has shown that hierarchy-based social structures have failed. What is the structure then that creates sustainable events? Daniel Quinn argues that modern civilization is inoperable and self-destructive (see Dawkins’s “killer memes”), and that social dissatisfaction is caused by unsustainable hierarchal social structures. He writes that we need a modern understanding of “new tribal community.”7 This does not have to look like the old tribal stereotype of “cavemen,” since foraging in the natural community is not a viable or even possible solution for the billions of people on Earth today. He consistently describes the revolution not as a movement to “go back” to some earlier style of living, but rather, a movement to “go forward” into something new. Quinn distinguishes between the concept of “the tribe” and “the commune,” the latter exemplified by the product of hippie movements, a community-based coexistence, where in many cases the common belief of ensuring sustainability is lacking. Quinn’s modern age example for “the tribe” is the circus or the theater. I believe the festival would also fit in that analogy. The community spirit (a common purpose for the common good) brings about cultural reproduction, which provides wellbeing for the members, and maintains the social model. In the “tribal model”, the role of the “leader” is important but does not demand a hierarchy. Rather, that role is considered to be as equally valuable and indispensable as other roles. Examples of such leaders could be an acrobat, an actor, or a curator. Common creation and cooperation allows the success of common production. This is the principle of interdependence whereby the relationships between members of the group are all equal to each other. Within a given group, recognition of both individual and community development therefore facilitates sustainabillity.

A festival based on community spirit

Similarly, researchers of population genetics are examining the sustainable social models of ancient cultures.8 It has been shown that “egalitarian community culture” based on equality reduces competition and differences within the group, and increases competition and differences between groups. This principle provides an answer on how not to fall into the approach of the “mainstream” and how we can hold on to uniqueness and biodiversity in the community. Quinn’s “modern tribalism” model reminds me of the Hungarian O.Z.O.R.A. psychedelic tribal gathering, which is essentially centred on music, but also an art and lifestyle festival.9 It promotes the principles of environmental sustainability (use of renewable energy sources, soft technology, green solutions, community gardening), and it also represents the community spirit that is the drive of the festival as a “ritual.” This is a special sub-cultural community with surprisingly strong cohesion, where the members call themselves “ozorians.” The ozorians initiated a modern tradition through their annual meeting, which goes beyond common musical interests and lifestyle similarities, pervaded with faith in universal values and in nature. I do not intend to shepherd our thoughts toward spirituality or blind faith, but scientific texts also respect the relationships of spirit and matter. We might call this “consciousness” or “commitment” as well. I wonder if our current actions and events are conscious? As Quinn renewed the concept of tribal culture, perhaps it would be advisable to think about a new interpretation of tradition in a modern context. Do we transform our traditions and events and transmit our values consciously, or do we allow them to be forgotten and replaced by new trends?

Human as re-creator

Western interpretation and modern reconstruction of traditions propose a number of further discourses, such as the cultural differences between East and West, the social effects of globalization, desacralization, the relationship between generations, use of technology, acceleration of the world, singularity, etc. Events based on traditions are ceremonial and sacred. During these ocassions, people step out of the volatile and unstable profane time, back into the mythical primordial time, and again remake their presence.10 Eliade writes that this “historical present” is eternal. Modern sacred events evoke artist Hermann Nitsch’s actions in “Orgies Mysterien Theater.” He interprets religious events through the language of contemporary, experimental performance art. But behind the sacred robe, he expresses rebellion against social and political conventions. The sacrality is transvaluated to the solemnity of presence through Nitsch’s performance art, and protest is the basic drive of his actions. The protest as a strong objection impacts community cohesion because it expresses a political, cultural, or religious statement. Instead of the initially introduced “beliefs” and “ideologies” let us use the term “statement,” which offers a framework and commitments to the community on which it can agree. The frameworks create rules, as mentioned above, which have to ensure the authority of the individual and the community. The authority connected to an event or a festival manifests itself as freedom of creation, which entails responsibility and consciousness because each reconstruction of us creates value and heredity.

In a nutshell

Sumarizing the references above, we need new, interdisciplinary, and alternative approaches for our social, economic, and ecological challenges. A holistic review is needed for which the sustainable sciences may provide clues. The object of the sustainable sciences, the “Sustainability Revolution” needs a non-hierarchical, decentralized organizational structure with revolutionary keywords. They are managment of ecology/environment, including democratically based issues related to economy/employment and equity/equality. These three contemporary terms complete the concept of “The Three Es” and we supplement it with a fourth one: education. Our cultural events and festivals fill the role of non-formal education and link past and future generations with the principle of interdependence. Through education, we gain and transmit knowledge, and we are able to reconstruct our social habits and traditions into a sustainable form. Individuals reproduce themselves and their knowledge through cultural mediums. But because of interdependence, community and society can therefore do the same. This is the force that drives us.

 

ENDNOTES

1 Andres R. Edwards: The Sustainability Revolution. Portrait of paradigm shift, New Society Publishers, Canada, 2006.
2 Vilmos Csányi:Az emberi viselkedés, Budapest,Sanoma Budapest Kiadói Rt., 2006.
3 Richard Dawkins: The Selfish Gene, USA, Oxford University Press, 2006.
4 Marshall Sahlins: Culture and Practical Reason, Chichago and London, University of Chicago Press, 1976.
5 Pierre Bourdieu: Outline of a Theory of Practice, Cambridge University Press, 1977.
6 Dan Sperber: Explaining Culture, Blackwell, 1996.
7 Daniel Quinn: Beyond Civilization: Humanity’s Next Great Adventure,Broadway Books, 2000
8 Robert Boyd, Peter Richerson, Christopher Bohm.
9 https://ozorafestival.eu/
10 Mircea Eliade:The Sacred and the Profane. The Nature of Religion,A Harvest.Book,Harcourt, Brace & World, Inc. New York.